Friday 26th January 2018
8:00am Business Breakfast
Employment Law Update
For regular attendees, this has become their annual ‘refresher’ on all things employment law and an opportunity to hear other people’s employment law issues. Citation’s Catherine Smith shares some of the most common employment law issues they hear from clients and takes questions from the audience. With employment tribunal fees being repealed, it is more important than ever to ensure your processes and procedures are watertight. Catherine will also touch on the legal implications of GDPR.
Stream A – High Performing Teams
The Power of Goals – Andy McCreadie, Sandler Training
Evidence shows that life’s high achievers are meticulous goal setters. They transform dreams into goals and then they relentlessly chase them. They are not afraid to take risks and have a natural inclination towards hard work and perseverance. The biggest obstacle for many people is the fear of failure and change. Goals by their very nature require some form of change, often meticulous planning and self-endurance. They almost certainly push us out of our comfort zones. But the advantages of goal setting outweigh the risks. They focus our lives; they force us on a path of self-discovery, create excitement and exhilaration and help us to learn and grow. In this session, Andy McCreadie, SW MD of the global management consultancy, Sandler, will explain why goals matter, with tips on how to define them in your personal and business life and how to make them happen.
Coaching for Success – Andy McCreadie, Sandler Training
Good leaders will instinctively use coaching techniques to develop their staff, such as questioning, listening and building rapport. Whilst there are times when it is appropriate to tell or show someone how to do something, individuals will feel more ownership of the task and will be more motivated if their ideas have been sought. In this session, Andy McCreadie offers some definitions of coaching and shows how you can use it as a management tool. He will also explain how you might benefit from personal executive coaching to help you achieve your own goals. Being a senior manager or business owner can be a lonely place and an hour or so a month with a personal coach can be transformational.
Defining and Transmitting your Practice Values – Major Cathie Gregg, GLCM
Can every member of your team describe what makes your practice special? Without an understanding of the company vision, values are difficult to define and are more likely to be linked to personal beliefs than company culture. Cathie Gregg has worked with a large veterinary group as well as other organisations outwith the profession to help them define their vision and then transmit this, together with the company values at the grassroots level. In this very practical session, Cathie will describe how to define your vision and then offer excellent ‘take home’ tips on how to embed those in every member of your team.
CVPM and other Management Qualifications – Liz Howes, ILM; Nikki Deane, Liverpool University; Kerry Scarlett, MBA; Stacey Gent, CVPM
|A look at the different courses and qualifications available to help you develop as a manager, including the VPAC, ILM courses, University of Liverpool Veterinary Business Studies, MBA and of course, the CVPM. Graduates of different courses will be joined by members of the examination board for the CVPM to share their experiences and help you decide which route is best for you.|
Stream B – Mind Matters with RCVS MMi
Recovery – Dr Max Pemberton
Mental health is often surrounded by stigma and misconceptions and yet psychiatry, as an area of medicine, has some of the highest positive outcomes. Most people recover from mental illness, in fact, with the right treatment and support, they can be stronger and more resilient than they were before. This is an important message for employers, who often fear employees who suffer from depression, stress or anxiety, will have long periods of absence and/or be underproductive. In this session, psychiatrist and journalist, Dr Max Pemberton, describes the process of recovery and how you, as a manager, can recognise common mental health problems and offer appropriate advice and support.
Building Resilience in the Workplace
Mark Bateman, Engage; Debbie Cohen and Wellbeing Award Winners
Resilience and Emotional Intelligence are terms that are increasingly used in relation to workplace wellbeing but what does this actually mean and how can you, as a manager build this in yourself and your team? Debbie Cohen from Cardiff University will share her work with doctors and medical students which is highly relevant to the veterinary profession. Mark Bateman from will reveal the findings of a survey he has been undertaking to measure workplace wellbeing within veterinary practice and we will hear from this year’s winners of the Vet Wellbeing Awards run by SPVS and RCVS MMI. The session will be chaired by Dr Max Pemberton.
The Chimp Paradox
An Introduction – Leonie Lightfoot
We all have an inner Chimp who can be our best friend or our worst enemy…this is the Chimp Paradox, a mind management model first devised by Dr Steve Peters and applied to his work with elite athletes. Do you sabotage your own happiness and success? Are you struggling to make sense of yourself? Do your emotions sometimes dictate your life? Leonie Lightfoot has lectured in applied sports psychology and worked with both England Athletics and British Equestrian. She is one of a small team who have worked with the model for a number of years. She understands the stresses of working in a pressured environment and is passionate about using the chimp model to support individuals, teams and organisations to find greater sense of wellbeing and purpose.
In the first half of this double session, Leonie will outline the model for those unaware of it or who want a refresher.
Achieving Balance in You and Your Team Through Chimp Management – Leonie Lightfoot
In the second session, Leonie will show how we can all achieve better balance, happiness and be more effective leaders by managing our inner chimps.
Stream C – Staff Retention & Productivity
Making the Most of Your Nurses – Louise Brennan, Royal Canin plus case studies from practice
There has never been a more important time to review the role your nurses play in practice. With a shortage of vets and qualified nurses, you need to optimise the time of your clinical team and create an environment that makes everyone feel valued and fulfilled. Louise Brenan worked in financial services, insurance and business development before training as an RVN and then, after a spell in practice, moving to Royal Canin where she is part of their Weight Management team. She will make the business case for repositioning your nurses, using them more effectively and charging for their clinical and advisory services across the spectrum of possible RVN clinics from physiotherapy to behaviour specialists.
The second part of this double session will describe three case study practices who have changed the way they use their nurses and the impact this has had on the team and on the bottom line.
Is your Practice Right for New Graduates – Cat Curtis, SPVS
Employing newly qualified vets can be a challenge, but when it works the rewards to both employer and employee are substantial. At a time when experienced vets are in short supply, many practices are employing new graduates for the first time. Cat Curtis has run the successful SPVS Lancaster Event for Final Year Graduates for many years which includes a panel of recent graduates and is now the Veterinary Talent Manager for the Vet Group. She will share some of their experiences of good and bad first jobs and discuss what a practice needs to do to attract and support a new graduate to maximise benefit to both parties.
Does Happiness Increase Productivity? – Professor Andrew Oswald, Warwick University
When companies from Google to MacDonald’s compete to be the best company to work for by investing time and money in their employee’s happiness, they are not just being altruistic. Evidence from Warwick Economics and elsewhere suggests that happiness really does make people more productive. Professor Oswald has been researching the economics of happiness for over two decades and in this lecture he pulls together findings from across the globe to consider what makes people happy in their work and how you, as a practice owner or manager can better understand and influence that.
Stream D – Equine
Time Management Tools for Equine Vets and Managers – Carolyne Crowe, VDS
Do you feel there isn’t enough time in the day to see all your clients, get bloods back to the practice, do your paperwork, call back owners, speak to colleagues about cases and re-stock your car? Does taking a lunch break seem like a distant dream? Do you feel that the practice is running your life rather than you running it? If so you aren’t alone.
Carolyne Crowe worked as an equine vet (and is married to one) before becoming a performance coach and mentor, researcher and VDS Training Consultant. In this session, she applies time management thinking to the particular demands of equine practice; how to optimise the time you do have, prioritise, delegate, stop procrastinating and put yourself back in control of your life and your practice. In doing so you will gain the freedom to do what is important to your life and your career.
Disruptive innovation and equine practice: how can ViVet help? – Dr Chris Tufnell BSc(Hons) BVMS MRCVS
In this session equine vet and RCVS Senior Vice-President Dr Chris Tufnell, examines how technology facilitated the growth of ambulatory equine practices and how this ‘disrupted’ more traditional practice-based models of first-opinion equine veterinary care. Through exploring the complex and frequently misunderstood concept of ‘disruptive innovation’, Chris invites us to consider how emerging technology could lead to further disruption and how practices might strategically respond to such threats.
Chris will conclude by introducing ViVet – a wide-ranging programme, inspired by VetFutures, to support veterinary professionals to engage with innovation and avoid being sidelined by its ‘creative destruction’.
The Benefits and Challenges of Employing New or Recently Qualified Graduates in Equine Practice – Nicky Paull, RCVS PDP Dean
With a shortage of qualified vets, more and more equine practices are employing new or recently qualified graduates. Employing less experienced vets requires a different approach and support systems and an ambulatory practice offers particular challenges. In this session, Nicky Paul shares her experience both from her own mixed practice and as a RCVS Post Graduate Dean, supporting new graduates through their Professional Development Phase.
Ethics in Equine Practice – Discussion
Jonathan Pycock, President BEVA, Roly Owers, CE, World Horse Welfare and Safia Barakzai, Equine Surgical Referrals
When is it okay to say no to a client? Are some equine vets or nurses too emotionally invested in their local horse owning community? What is the role of the vet in cases of misguided management or older retired horses kept alive for too long? And can ‘evidence based medicine’ sometimes lose out to ‘finance based medicine’? These are just some of the ethical issues facing modern equine practice. In this session Julian Samuelson will put questions to our panel and field a discussion from managers and vets in the audience.
Stream E – New to Management
How and When to Delegate – Cathie Gregg, GLCM
Scared to delegate? Unsure of WHAT to delegate? How do YOU delegate?
If you are new to management, this is one of the harder skills to acquire. Many new, and not-so-new managers end up micro-managing, doing all the work themselves, or creating confusion and resentment through poor understanding of the team’s capabilities.
In this session, Major Cathie Gregg will look at some of the pitfalls and offer some easy-to-apply and imaginative ideas to help you avoid them.
Reading your Management Accounts – Georgina Hills, IVC & VPMA Council
Do you know your gross profit from your operating profit? Can you tell your COGS from your EBITDA? And do you understand why any of this is important in day to day practice management and business planning? Matt will run through the basics of a Monthly Management Account and explain some common financial terminology.
Leadership and Management; understanding the difference – Andy McCreadie, Sandler Training
Leadership is about getting people to understand and believe in your vision and to work with you to achieve your goals while managing is more about administering and making sure the day-to-day things are happening as they should. The best managers are likely to also have leadership qualities such as the ability to think outside the box, great communication skills and a clear idea of the business goals. Great leaders on the other hand are sometimes not the best at detailed management. In this session, Andy McCreadie looks at the differences between leadership and management and the natural overlap between the two and asks which leadership qualities good managers should try to develop.
Introduction to KPIs: Why you need them and what to do with them
In this session we will look at both Practice and Client KPIs which will help you understand where your business is and what is really happening and enable you to make evidence based decisions on what to do next.
Question Time with Our Panel of Experienced Managers
Those things you want to know about practice management but are too scared to ask! To finish the day there will be an open discussion session where you can ask our panel of experienced PM’s from both independent and corporate practices just what they would (or wouldn’t) do!
Saturday 27th January 2018
8:00am Business Breakfast
Having It All in Practice: Happy Pets and People, Healthier Pets and Profits
Pet fear, anxiety, and stress collectively represent the largest barrier to pet owners seeking veterinary care. Fear Free℠ is the most innovative advancement veterinary medicine has experienced over the last decade and it is the most powerful tool that vets have to increase the number of pet visits to their practice. This approach to healthcare creates a unique opportunity to once again build partnerships and trust with the clients we serve. We will explore the impact that fear, anxiety, and stress have on pet healthcare, pet owners, veterinary staff, and on the veterinary business. Jonathan Bloom, a vet from Toronto, Canada, presents an innovative approach, tried and tested in his own practice, to creating a new healthcare culture and philosophy for general practice and for the specialty referral hospital. It finally happened – a healthcare model that benefits pets, pet owners, staff, and the business!
Stream A – High Performing Teams
Why We Need Great Vets as Leaders – Amanda Goodall, Cass Business School, London
Who is the best person to lead a business? Someone with charisma and a strong management background or a core-business expert in that particular field? Amanda Goodall’s research from human hospitals to Fortune 500 firms, in the UK and US, suggests that organisations perform better when led by someone with expert knowledge. What’s more, her work suggests a boss’s technical competence is the single strongest predictor of a worker’s job satisfaction. She will argue that it is easier to train the best experts to be managers and leaders than it is to educate general managers in the expert knowledge (technical, tacit and cultural) that is built up over decades.
Amanda will present the data and lead a follow up discussion on how applicable her findings might be to the veterinary profession.
Organisation Culture – Fiona Nichol/Jo Malone, Vet Partners
From a visit to a small local restaurant to shopping in John Lewis, we recognise good (and bad) culture instantly when we are on the receiving end. But what is it? Does your practice have it? And how do you create, nurture and develop it? Organisational culture is a system of shared assumptions, values and beliefs that determine how people at all levels in the company interact. Jo Malone worked in Minster Vets for 16 years, being instrumental in growing the practice. In 2015 vetPartners was born, driven by Jo as its CEO. Fiona Nichol worked as a Business Consultant for Zoetis before joining Vet Partners as Business Support Manager. In this session, they describe what they believe makes a good practice culture. They will also talk about how they maintain a positive culture when a practice merges or is acquired by a larger group.
Blame Culture, Why does it exist in Practice – Catherine Oxtoby, VDS
The unpredictable and often high pressured nature of veterinary practice and human nature means that mistakes happen from time to time. What is important is that lessons are learnt from mistakes and this is more likely to happen within a ‘no blame’ culture. Catherine Oxtoby is a vet whose PhD looked at patient safety and culture within the veterinary profession and the NHS. In this session she compares and contrasts the two professions, looking at why things go wrong and ways to ensure that when they do, lessons are learnt rather than blame attributed.
Giving and Receiving Feedback – Richard Artingstall, IVC
Feedback is fundamental to personal development and can be positive, to reward and reinforce good behaviour, or developmental, to correct negative behaviours or poor productivity. In this session, Richard Artingstall brings his experience as a veterinary clinical director and his qualifications in coaching and mentoring as a personal coach to the art of giving and receiving feedback. He will help you to understand how and why different people react differently to feedback and how to anticipate and handle this. He will also cover how to give feedback to your boss as well as your team and how to accept and learn from feedback when you are on the receiving end, even if you don’t always agree with it or respect the person delivering it.
Learning from Excellence – Catherine Oxtoby, VDS; Carolyne Crowe; VDS, Lizzie Lockett RCVS; Richard Artingstall, IVC
Carolyne Crowe summarises key points from the morning sessions on Blame Culture and Giving & Receiving Feedback and presents the business case for a learning culture within vet practice which in turn leads to incremental improvement and ‘Learning from Excellence’. Lizzie Lockett will report on the RCVS survey into ‘Blame Culture’ within the profession. Carolyne will then lead a discussion on how this might look in reality, drawing on the experience of the panel and the audience to consider how to create a positive learning culture within practice.
Stream B – Profitable Practice
Business Strategy for Vet Practice – Matthew Diffey, The Vet Group
Whether you are looking to set new business priorities, plan for growth or just continue what you are doing but do it better, you need a business strategy. Arguably, in the rapidly changing veterinary landscape, having a clear strategy for your business is more important than ever. Matt Diffey, Head of Strategy and Commercial Initiatives at the Pets at Home Vet Group, will share his perspective on how to think about the strategy for your practice, building on his experience at the Vet Group and at leading management consultancy Bain & Company.
A Six Month Plan to Lift your Profitability – Nick Stuart, SPVS & IVC
Nick Stuart presents an update on the SPVS Profitability Survey and the latest results and uses this as a starting point to ask what makes a profitable veterinary business. Assuming you’ve done the best deal possible with suppliers and putting to one side fixed costs such as wages, rates and rents, what can you practically do day to day to impact on profitability. Nick will focus on practical management solutions which can lift profitability which are relevant to all practices whether independently or corporately owned.
Investing for Growth – Suzanne Headington, Hazlewoods
So you’ve freed up a bit of cash, now you have to decide how to invest it back into the business. Are you going to refurbish your waiting room? Extend your premises to accommodate an extra consult room or more operating space? Open a new branch? Or would you be better to invest in that shiny new toy you saw at BSAVA? Once you’ve decided where to invest for growth, how might you finance it tax efficiently and how will you measure your return on investment? Veterinary Accountant, Suzanne Headington raises the questions you will need to discuss in your practice to decide the right answers for you.
Pharmacy and Supply: A Business within your Business – Victoria Ansell, Centaur Services
Too much money tied up in stock, inaccurate pricing, and product thrown away due to expiry; these are just some of the ways poor inventory management can impact on your business. Good stock control and inventory management can make a big difference to profitability and yet it is often overlooked with no one person taking overall charge. In this interactive session, Victoria Ansell from Centaur, will provide the knowledge you need to effectively manage the inventory in a busy practice, sharing some of the common pitfalls of stock control and with tips on how to get the whole team onside.
eCommerce – A Rapidly Changing Veterinary Environment – Mark O’Byrne, Hills
Most of us shop online now. Some of us seek advice in a “brick and mortar” retail environment and then purchase the same product online. This behaviour is not going to change and the internet is not going to suddenly collapse. Our clients will continue to ask us questions, take our recommendations and then purchase elsewhere where it is either cheaper or more convenient. We have a choice to ignore this issue, confront or embrace it. We do not have the choice to stop recommending what is best for the patients that we care for and serve.This presentation will cover the questions and discussions we need to have in our businesses and together, discover solutions in how we address yet another paradigm shift in veterinary business and recommendation.
Stream C – Customer Care and Communications
Bringing Pets Back into Practice
The Fear Free TM Outpatient Experience – Jonathan Bloom
There are two types of veterinary practice – busy ones, and barely surviving ones. What do they both have in common? Both need a commitment from all staff to create a culture and environment that focusses on the pet’s emotional well-being to the same extent that it focusses on the pet’s physical well-being. Both need to address their patient’s fear, anxiety and stress in order to provide optimal healthcare, and in order to provide the best experience imaginable for pets, pet owners, and veterinary staff. Learn how practices can step up their approach by addressing the fear, anxiety and stress issue head on by exploring strategies from the trenches of General Practice. Using video examples and sharing experience from his own practice in Toronto, Canada, Jonathan Bloom walks you through the typical outpatient Fear Free℠ exam, showing you how to solve the most common challenges of the outpatient visit. It will change the way you practice.
Defining and Building a Loyal Client Base – Nick Steele, Zoetis
There is much talk about the importance of building loyalty among your pet owning clients, but what exactly does this look like and is loyalty always the same from one client to the next? In this session, Nick Steele, National Business Consulting Manager for Zoetis, describes different types of loyal client and how you might want to target them with your marketing and health plans. For instance, the client who is loyal to you because you offer a good price might be tied in with a health plan, whereas the traditionally loyal client who spends very little, but would never dream of going elsewhere, may be the one to target when it comes to recommending you to others.
Search Engine Optimisation
Spending enough time & money on Google? – Andrew Rastall, Connected Vet
Search Engine Optimisation is one of those things that can too easily be dumped in the ‘too difficult’ box, but a basic understanding of SEO can have a dramatic impact on the performance of your website. Get this right and it is one of the most cost effective ways to ensure a good return the time, emotion and money you spend on your practice’s online presence.
In this session, illustrated with examples and current cases studies, Andrew Rastall, Connected Vet, explains the dark art of optimising your practice’s website in easy to understand language. He will offer practical solutions and simple to-do lists that will help 95% of practices to improve their site’s performance in ‘Google search’. An invaluable session for anyone who is responsible for their business’ website and who would like that site to deliver more measurable value.
Ready or not, GDPR is coming! – Dr Charlie Barton, Virtual Recall
On 25th May 2018, the General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR) will become law, putting a legal obligation on all practices to process and store personal data responsibly – or face a fine of up to 4% of revenue or €20 million. The intention is to protect personal information in an increasingly digital world and it will have implications not only for how you communicate with clients and store their data, but also such things as staff payroll information. In this session, Charlie Barton outlines the key things you must be aware of and steps every practice should take to ensure they fulfil their legal obligations, and more specifically how you can gain overt client opt–in so that you can carry on communicating with your customers be it by email, SMS or post so that you can protect your future revenue stream.
Stream D – Large Animals
Farm Vet MOT – Nick Steele & Team, Zoetis
Do your farm clients see you as a partner in their herd health planning or an expense to be avoided if at all possible? And do you have a strategy to attract more of the former and shift some of Group B into Group A! Assuming you have some of both in your mix, can you easily segment them to ensure different marketing and communication to each group. This session will help you set goals as a farm practice or the farm division within a mixed practice and create a business plan to drive profitability.
Large Animal Pharmacy and Supply – Victoria Ansell, Centaur Services
Inventory management is particularly challenging for ambulatory large animal and equine vet practice. Tracking products from purchase to dispensing or use in the field is complicated by having numerous stock locations, including vehicles, and this tends to create relatively high levels of loss due to outdate, damage, or failure to invoice. Mobile inventories, along with more common issues of stocking a central pharmacy, can make managing reorder points and pricing complex. In this session, Victoria Ansell will share proactive inventory strategies for sustaining agility, efficacy and profitability in large animal practices. We will look at pharmacy and supply as a business within your business, and you will leave with practical tools to use immediately in your practice.
Keeping Your Team Safe and Well – Peter Doyle, Citation and Carolyne Crowe, VDS
Citation’s National Health and Safety Manager will bring his extensive experience and knowledge to this session considering the specific health and safety issues around Large Animal Practice. This session will cover the H&S legal essentials and how to do a risk assessment. It will consider recent changes to the law and your obligations around stress management. Peter will share the most common problems presented to their helpline and take questions from the audience. Carolyne Crowe from VDS will describe the key elements of a workplace stress management policy which is both a legal requirement and good management practice.
Effective Client Communication – Alison Bard, University of Bristol
Do you ever feel that the more you present the case for herd health to farmers, they less they seem to be listening? Behavioural scientist, Alison Bard’s PhD looked closely at how a change in approach from cattle vets could increase uptake of health messages and ultimately improve dairy cattle welfare. By spending more time asking the farmer questions and trying to understand their individual and often quite personal reasons for change, they were able to find solutions that were more likely to be implemented. In this session she explains how she applied an evidence based intervention from human medicine to farm vet practice with very positive results.
The Role of the Large Animal Vet – Kath Aplin, Boehringer, Lysan Eppink, BCVA, Dairy Farmer, Johnny Alvis and large animal vet (tbc)
How will Brexit impact on large animal practice? Do meat and dairy consumers really understand or care about how their food is produced and slaughtered and what role should the profession take in influencing this? How far should vets go to tackle microbial resistance? These are some of the challenges of modern farm practice that chair, Kath Aplin will put to the panel who include the President of BCVA, a large animal vet and a dairy farmer.
Stream E – Ownership Options
Setting up from Scratch – Brian Faulkner
Brian Faulkner shares his experience of setting up 4 practices himself from scratch. He will summarize the importance of getting the right clients through the door, recruiting your team and creating a can-do culture. Looking back he is able to see some fundamental and obvious mistakes he made and also the traps he managed to avoid. For instance, ensuring your premises are visible from a busy road; defining the sort of practice you want to be; and understanding the importance of staff who share your vision. He will discuss pricing strategy and the dangers of pursuing quantity of clients (footfall at any cost) over quality (those clients who are happy to spend money on their pets).
Ownership Options – Case Studies – Shaun Taylor, Yatton Vets; Amy Dyce, The Vet Group; Sian Humphries, Medivet
Setting up from scratch is just one ownership option available these days. In this session three vets share their routes into ownership, explaining why they opted for that particular model and the advantages and disadvantages it offers. Joint Venture Partnerships with for instance Medivet or Vets4Pets in another. Additionally, it is no longer a requirement for owners to be vets and so non-MRCVs can set up from scratch or become a JVP.
Creating a Business Plan – Peter Gripper, Anval
At its simplest, a Business Plan is a roadmap for your business that lays down what you want to achieve and how you are going to get there. It is well worth taking the time to put this down on paper as it is likely to throw up all sorts of things you may not have considered. In this session, Peter Gripper will share his wide experience of practices at every stage of their lifecycle; help you to think about what sort of practice suits you; and explain how to create a business plan that is also a life plan. Do you, for instance, want to work and live in a specific part of the country? Do you want a business that will allow you to take time out to start a family two years down the line? Is this a business for life or a quick turnaround with a view to selling it on in 5 years’ time?
Raising the Finance: What the Bank wants to See – Roger Milton & Simon Biles, Moore Scarrott
Roger and Simon bring their accountancy background and veterinary knowledge to this session on the financing options for businesses. They regularly advise on start-up situations and will help delegates understand what it is the bank wants to see and help them find the ideal compromise between under ambitious and over optimistic in their projections. They will approach this session with a ‘Dragon’s Den’ mentality, showing how a potential investor will interrogate your figures in order to test your business acumen. They will also help you understand how much room you have for negotiation to ensure you don’t just get the money, but also the best possible terms.
Panel Discussion – Roger Milton and Simon Biles, Moore Scarrott & Peter Gripper, Anval
Chaired by Richard Holborrow
Richard is joined by a partner from Moore Scarrott and Peter Gripper for a final question and answer session. Richard will keep a track of questions throughout the day to create a conversation with delegates about the different issues that have been raised and some of the challenges that might lie ahead.